BLACK DIAMOND is an Amel Super Maramu 2000 hull # 430. It was built in the last year of production of this final model built under the strict guidelines of Mr. Amel. His goal was to build a safe “go anywhere” cruising boat. He wanted it to be easily handled by a couple, low maintenance and engineered to withstand the challenges of extended ocean voyages. Toward this end he used his own experiences and the shared experiences of decades of Amel owners. He accumulated and engineered all of the ‘best practices’ into this final model before his death. After Mr. Amel’s death, management adopted many of today’s popular marina condo features which detract from his original concept.
The original owner of BLACK DIAMOND accumulated 160,000 sea miles with progressively larger boats finally raising his family on a 77’ ketch. He retired from the sea until he took a demonstration sail on an Amel Su in Ft. Lauderdale. Discovering he could have the attributes of his larger yacht and downsize to a boat he and his wife could handle, he placed an order. Amel, at the time, offered a wide range of options and upgrades, which can all be found on this boat. While it was a struggle. the French agreed to the requested icemaker, only the second they had ever done.
The current owner bought BLACK DIAMOND five years ago with the intention to sail around the world with his two young children. Plans changed after he sailed from San Francisco to Hawaii with his children. The boat has stayed in Hawaii and he has used her there. He is now ready to let the boat go to the next owner that will take her cruising.
The boat’s strength is unparalleled. The layup of the hull is so strong, that just lifting it with the chain plates, a feat that would rupture bulkheads in most boats of this size, commonly transports it. The boat can be stood on its winged keel. The winged keel is a cruising asset, performance without harbor limiting deep draft. The rudder skeg is equally capable of withstanding the boat’s weight while protecting the rudder. The prop is mounted mid-point on the keel, maximizing its protection and driven by a unique right angle drivetrain that eliminates engine vibration.
To minimize cruising life’s maintenance, teak on the exterior has been minimized. Teak looks nice in the marina, but is tough to maintain while cruising. However, Mr. Amel made up for the lack of wood on the exterior with a rich mahogany interior. Each Amel’s interior is cut from a single tree, to match color and grain and then finished with 13 coats of varnish. The interior of the boat is beautifully comfortable, but designed for real world cruising. The floors open for dry storage and lock down for sea voyages. Leather bound handrails are thoughtfully place for those exhilarating times at sea. LED courtesy lights illuminate the cabin sole for the night watch.
The operation of the boat is well thought-out and engineered. All electric drives have backups. Normal operation of the boat can be accomplished from the cockpit. When you go on deck, there is a solid stainless steel railing around the complete boat. The downwind set up is without peer. One person can erect the poles and once the sails are up (wing & wing) due to a unique halyard less system, can be reefed to accommodate conditions. The forward setup eliminates downwind roll.
There is a ‘stand up’ engine room that is unparalled. Having just looked at competing boats with machinery tucked everywhere and the entire boats smelling of diesel and bilge odors. Amel, being blind and relying on hearing and smell, wanted all of the noise and smell-makers to be out of the living space. Hence, he designed the totally separate engine room that is accessed through the floor of the cockpit and being large enough that servicing and accessing every mechanical component is easy.
- New Bimini 2021
- New headsail halyards 2021
- New charger 2021
- New front ballooner 2021
- Service engine 2020
- Service generator 2020
- 13 AGM batteries 2018
- Fresh exterior wax and detail 2021
The interior of BLACK DIAMOND is characteristic of Amel's unique design approach. She is finished in beautiful grain matched African mahogany bulkheads and trim, with a combination mahogany and fiberglass cabin sole. Floorboards are hinged to allow easy access to storage below. Three wide steps lead from the cockpit down into her main salon. Her spacious interior with two staterooms sleeps six. Both staterooms have private heads with integral showers. There is ample storage space for personal gear, spares, stores and other equipment throughout the yacht in large lockers, cabinets and dry finished storage compartments below the cabin sole.
Starting forward, the guest stateroom features a comfortable arrangement with berths to port and starboard. The two berths can be combined to make a large double berth. There is excellent storage in four lockers with a shelf and drawer above each berth along the hull side. Forward, there are two lockers with a shelf above. A Sharp Aquos flat screen TV is flush mounted forward which is tied in to the TracVision M-3 Satellite TV system. Below each berth, there is excellent compartmentalized storage. A small writing table stows out of the way against the aft bulkhead. Light and ventilation are provided by a bulkhead mounted lamp, two reading lights, two fixed portlights and an opening hatch.
FORWARD HEAD AND HANGING LOCKER
Aft of the forward stateroom is a passageway to the main cabin. Outboard along the hull side is a large hanging locker. To port is the forward head. The sole is fiberglass with a deep molded sump which is covered by a teak grate. The bulkheads are finished in vinyl with mahogany trim. A shower is integral to the space. A curtain surrounds the shower area. The shower wand is mounted on the aft bulkhead. At the forward end of the compartment is a deep sink with single lever faucet and molded soap tray. There is a mirror above the sink on the bulkhead. Outboard to port, there is a mirrored medicine cabinet. The marine toilet faces inboard at the outboard end of the compartment. Outboard of the head, there are four open lockers for storage of towels or other toiletries. There are a number of hooks and towel racks to hang wet towels or bathing suits.
The main salon provides a comfortable arrangement - whether entertaining guests, making a passage or relaxing at anchor. To starboard is a short settee which is framed by end tables fore and aft. There are two large drawers below the settee, three smaller drawers aft, and a large locker with shelves forward. Above and outboard is a pilot berth that slides out. Outboard of the pilot berth are four large lockers separated in the center by two open shelves.
Opposite to port is a huge U-shaped dinette with fixed table that will easily seat six or more. There is bottle storage below the table. Outboard of the dinette, there is similar storage in four lockers with shelves, an open shelf and two drawers. A Sharp Aquos flat screen TV is flush mounted to starboard which is tied in to the TracVision M-3 Satellite TV system. Amel has provided a logo embossed leather cover to hide the TV when not in use. Light is provided by three bulkhead mounted lamps, one overhead light and four fixed portlights. An opening hatch above provides light and ventilation.
The galley is aft of the salon to port. The deep U-shaped arrangement creates an excellent seagoing galley with ample counter and storage space. At the forward inboard end, a panel lifts to reveal the top-loading Thomson washer/dryer. Just inboard is a long open counter space that is divided into three sections with teak fiddles to prevent items from sliding. Below, there are two drawers - one with dividers for silverware and two large lockers - one with bottle storage, the other with three shelves. Further outboard is a cleverly arranged dry storage locker with customizable shelves. Above and outboard along the hull side is a locker with two shelves. Above the three-burner stove/oven is the microwave. A stainless steel crash bar with hooks for a galley belt protects the cook. Just aft is a locker with large shelves and ample space for storing dry goods. Aft of the stove at the inboard end of the aft counter is the top loading dishwasher. Further inboard is a massive molded two bin sink with a single lever faucet for hot/cold pressure water. There is additional free counter space inboard of the sink. A long shelf runs the length of the counter. There are two smaller shelves below and two stainless soap/sponge holders above the sink. Below the aft counter, there are two large lockers. A trash bin is mounted on the back of the outboard locker door. Below the starboard end of the counter is a large front-loading fridge. There are additional large fridge/freezer compartments below the fore and aft dinette settees.
The outboard facing nav station is adjacent to the bottom of the companionway to starboard. The lift-top panel reveals a large locker below the chart table for full size charts. Two drawers below provide storage for other navigational instruments.
Aft of the nav station is a large open hanging locker which is perfectly situated next to the companionway.
PASSAGEWAY and PILOT BERTH
Aft is the passageway to the master stateroom. Outboard is a wide sea berth that can be fitted with a lee board. The proximity of this sea berth to the cockpit provides an excellent place to rest while keeping in communication with the helmsman. Above is a series of four lockers with shelves separated by an open shelf and drawer in between. The berth hinges up to allow access to a large battery compartment. There is a reading lamp and overhead light above. A shelf stretches the length of the inboard side of the passageway. An opening port provides ventilation. At the aft end of the passageway is an open hanging locker for wet foul weather gear.
The passageway opens into the aft master stateroom. Immediately outboard to starboard is a large hanging locker. Just aft is a reading desk seat that rotates out of the way. There are two drawers outboard. Above, there are two lockers with shelves (the forward of which is lockable). Aft, is an open shelf with shallow drawer below. Further aft, there are two lockers, one containing a safe. Below is an L-shaped dressing settee. Opposite to port is the large pullman style berth. Above and outboard, the storage mirrors the starboard side with four lockers, a drawer and shelf. A Sharp Aquos flat screen TV is flush mounted on the aft bulkhead which is tied in to the TracVision M-3 Satellite TV system. There are two reading lamps, four bulkhead mounted lamps and one overhead light. Four fixed portlights provide additional light. An opening port, hatch and Hella Turbo fan deliver good ventilation.
The ensuite aft head is located forward to port. The sole is fiberglass with a deep molded sump which is covered by a teak grate. The bulkheads are finished in vinyl with mahogany trim. A shower with curtain is integral to the space. The shower wand is mounted on the aft bulkhead. At the forward end of the compartment is a deep sink with single lever faucet and molded soap tray. There is a mirror above the sink on the bulkhead. Outboard to port, there is a mirrored medicine cabinet. The head faces inboard at the outboard end of the compartment. Outboard of the head, there are four open lockers for storage of towels or other toiletries. There are a number of hooks and towel racks located on the bulkhead.
The U-shaped galley is located in the port side aft quarter of the saloon at the base of the companionway. This galley is, truly, an ergonomic “tour de force” that will be very much appreciated by a seagoing gourmet both when offshore or in a harbor. There is plenty of counter space for meal preparation and an abundance of storage both in and about the galley so that the sailing chef can have all the conveniences found in a shore-side kitchen without the usual clutter present in most fully equipped sailboat galleys. There is a flush mount dishwasher adjacent to the double sinks. There is a front-loading refrigerator under the counter and additional large refrigerator/freezer boxes under the dinette seating. The washer/dryer is also located in the galley area.
Climate Control & Ventillation
- Front loading under-counter refrigerator - stainless steel lined
- Two large freezer boxes under dinette seats
- Flush mounted dishwasher - stainless steel
- 4 Burner LPG stove w/ oven & broiler - stainless steel
- U-Line Icemaker
- Microwave/convection oven
- Deep ventilated vegetable locker with adjustable shelves
- Double molded sinks
- Corian counters
- Extensive cabinet, cubby & under sole storage for provisions
- Jura Ena 5 Espresso machine
- Water maker
- Complete set of Amel dinnerware, pots, pans and silverware
- Sea Gull fresh water filtration system
Natural ventilation of the interior spaces of BLACK DIAMOND is excellent. When at anchor and facing into the breeze, open the three overhead hatches (forward stateroom, forward head area, and saloon) and close the cockpit companionway hatch. Open the hatch at the extreme aft end of the owner’s cabin, and then enjoy the exceptional natural flow through ventilation. The key is to close the cockpit companionway and hatch.
There are three 8,000 BTU air conditioners installed, one in the forward stateroom, one in the salon, and another in the aft stateroom. They are all the same model and can be serviced from common spares. These three air conditioners also have powerful resistance type radiant heaters. These heaters keep the boat comfortable inside when the outside temperature is 40ºF.
For colder climates, the yacht features an Eberspacher forced air central diesel heating system. The system will keep the entire interior warm and dry without running the generator.
This SUPER MARAMU also has the 24-volt powered, fresh air ventilation system that provides dry fresh air to all three cabins as required. This is particularly useful in conditions that warrant closing all other exterior sources of ventilation. Additional ventilation is provided by eight 24 volt Hella 2-speed fans with ten dedicated mounting points/power supply’s to mount them on.
ELECTRONICS & NAVIGATION
BLACK DIAMOND is equipped with an extensive electronics system with displays at both the helm station and the navigation station. The autopilot features two independent/redundant drive units. There is an Iridium satellite telephone system with an external antenna. A TracVision M-3 Satellite Dome provides active tracking satellite TV service while underway for the three Sharp Aquos flat screen TV's that are custom mounted throughout the yacht.
- Raymarine Touch Chart Plotter/Radar Display with controller (helm station) 2018
- Raymarine Hybrid Touch Chart Plotter/Radar Display (nav station) 2018
- Raymarine Evolution Autopilot with two independent drive units and new spare control unit 2018
- Raymarine AIS System 2018
- 4 Raymarine i70 Multi Displays (helm station) 2018
- 2 Raymarine i70 Multi Displays (nav station) 2018
- Raymarine ST70 Depth display (helm station)
- ICOM M-506 VHF (nav station) 2018
- ICOM ram mic (helm station) 2018
- ICOM ICM802 SSB Radio
- Iridium Satellite Telephone System with external antenna
- KVH TracVision M-3 Active Tracking Satellite TV Dome
- (3) Sharp Aquos Flat Screen TV's custom installed throughout yacht
- JVC cd player/radio
- Sony DVD Player
- (2) Colby DVD Players
- ACR EPIRB
- All lights are LED including mast lights
Probably best described as a ¾ aft cockpit, the cockpit area in BLACK DIAMOND is situated deep within the vessel for enhanced security and to minimize undesirable motion. The steering station is in the forward port side quarter of the cockpit where the helmsperson can be completely protected from sun, spray, rain and other undesirable environmental conditions. The cockpit is exceptionally comfortable, as the seat backs and the seats themselves are ergonomically designed to conform to the human anatomy with subtle curves in just the right places. Henri Amel went to great lengths to make this area the most comfortable room in the house.
The hard dodger protects the cockpit from the sea and spray while the extendable/pull out bimini keeps the sun and rain away. If you have not had the pleasure of experiencing the uncommon comfort of the SUPER MARAMU cockpit, be sure to spend a few minutes investigating this for yourself when you get aboard.
The forward deckhouse is a wedge configuration. Both the forward and aft deckhouses are bordered by side decks that are unencumbered by rigging or equipment. It is quite easy and safe to make your way about the decks on board BLACK DIAMOND.
Each and every element of the deck design was drawn, reconsidered, and then ultimately configured to provide the optimum in functionality, comfort, and security. Henri Amel’s 30+ years of experience with offshore sailing boat design really shows everywhere aboard the SUPER MARAMU.
The hull is an evolution of Henri Amel’s cruising keel and skeg hung rudder philosophy that he helped popularize for cruising boats in the early 1950’s. The raked bow with semi-rounded forefoot provides a fast, yet sea-kindly face to the waves. The wide, low aspect ratio keel gives up maybe a couple of degrees in pointing ability in providing an exceptionally strong and secure mount for the external ballast. All 264 gallons of fresh water are carried in the stub keel, not only providing a double bottom but keeping the weight of the water quite low in the boat (and not in tanks under settees where they would rob storage). The keel has long wings, which not only aid stiffness and weatherliness, but also act as pitch stabilizers when going 5 knots or better. The keel has a flat bottom and is wide enough to allow the boat to stand unsupported on the keel. However, it is highly recommended to use support stands when on the hard.
The propeller is mounted on the trailing edge of the keel where it is well immersed and very well protected from sea junk. It is also not under the bed in the owner’s cabin, as in most center cockpit designs, allowing you to sleep when powering. Propeller noise is effectively marginalized.
The rudder is hung from a massive, full-length skeg assembly that can support the entire laden weight of the vessel in case of a grounding.
The hull’s run aft is wide enough to support powerful reaching performance, yet shaped with a gradual buoyancy increase, so when immersed in waves, to impart a steady ride in a sea way. In conjunction with the same gradual buoyancy increase in the bow, there is a very predictable and linier motion at sea.
As in all elements of the entire vessel’s design, the hull and deck were conceived to do their job properly and efficiently, not to have a certain look or to make a fashion statement. In cruising yacht design, as in nature, the most satisfactory results are achieved when form follows function.
SAILS & RIGGING
The Amel Super Maramu 2000 has a construction technique that is absolutely unique in the industry. The yield is an extremely strong and solid one-piece hull and deck assembly, a true monocoque.
All Amels since 1967, have been built with Amel designed biaxial fiberglass cloth. This is a flat woven fiberglass cloth that is much stronger in sheer and tension than conventional mat and woven roving laminates. It is lighter, stronger, and better. The hull is molded in one piece, incorporating one piece/non-spliced lengths of biaxial cloth running from bulwark, down through the keel/centerline and up to the opposite bulwark. In the same fashion, the next series of laminates run from the bow lengthwise to the stern, again, employing one piece/non spliced lengths of biaxial cloth. The deck assembly is built in a similar fashion. While the hull is a solid fiberglass laminate with no core, the deck assembly employs a core of Baltek vertical end grain balsa in strategic horizontal areas to enhance stiffness and ialsso provides insulation from heat and noise. There are also substrates of “Iron Wood” in the deck assembly where cleats and the windlass are installed to easily accommodate the increased compression and shearing loads in the foredeck.
While the completed one-piece hull is still in the mold, ALL the furniture and structural bulkheads, less non-structural drawers and cabinet faces, are installed. After all the structural assemblies are completely installed, the separately completed deck assembly is joined to the hull (again, while it is still in the mold) with six layers of the same biaxial cloth used in the primary laminations, around the entire hull to deck interface. What this accomplishes, effectively, is the elimination of a conventional hull to deck joint. The hull and deck are married with a homogeneous fiberglass matrix, which insures a strong and leak free hull and deck joint for the entire life of the vessel.
Mast-headed ketch rig with AMEL designed with furling systems on the jib, main and mizzen. The main and jib furlers can be operated electrically or manually. The mizzen is manual operation only. Additionally, the main sheet traveler and the jib sheet cars can be positioned from the cockpit area.
Like all SUPER MARAMU MILLENNIUMS, this boat has the exclusive AMEL double headsail ballooner system. For those who have not experienced this, you are in for a treat. It allows one person to control 1431 square feet of off-the-wind headsail power from the cockpit, absolutely without effort.
The standing rigging is 1x 19 stainless steel wire with swaged end fittings and open barrel chromed bronze turnbuckles. Turnbuckles are secured with bolts in lieu of cotter pins. The aluminum alloy spars and booms are zinc chromated, primed and then painted in cream colored polyurethane. Both masts are deck stepped to massive compression assemblies that carry the compression loads into the hull.
Winches are all self-tailing Lewmar. The #58 primary cockpit winches and the #40 main sheet winch are 24-volt powered.
For downwind sailing, the yacht features a unique, easy-to-use twin-pole system for booming out sails from the shrouds.
- (2) Headsail Balooners (one light wind & one heavy wind)
- (1) Mizzen Balooner (light wind)
- (1) ATN Storm Sail
- (1) North Sails Gennaker with Snuffer and Valise
The engine, and most all of the vessel’s machinery, is mounted in a very spacious engine room that allows easy and unencumbered access to all the machinery for inspection, service and repair. This is a true step-in/stand-up engine room that contains all the noise, heat, and mess of the machinery, thereby keeping it all out of the accommodations. Access is via a large hatch in the cockpit which exposes all equipment. A central bilge located within the engine room handles all on board gray water keeping the interior of the yacht fresh and clean from gray water smells.
The yacht features an upgraded 100 H.P. YANMAR 4JH3-HTE Marine Diesel, 4 cylinder. 4 cycle. turbocharged engine. This strong, bullet proof engine is fresh water-cooled with a ZF 2.8:1 hydraulic reduction drive and an automatic, disc-type propeller brake. 1:1 AMEL designed and constructed U-DRIVE system and three bladed, 22” AUTOPROP bronze automatic feathering propeller. Shaft spurs protect the running gear. Dual Racor fuel filters on easy-switch manifold with vacuum gauge. Engine mounted fuel filter. Algae-X. Engine hours are 2350 hours. The engine is equipped with a 150A alternator for quick charging of the 10 new AGM batteries. Enhanced engine control and monitoring panel with audible alarms and indicator lights, tachometer, voltmeter, coolant temperature, and oil pressure gauge.
The engine room contains a 7.5KW Onan Generator with 2181 hours. The generator was recently serviced in 2021.
An engine room sea chest provides one thru-hull for the entire raw water system throughout the yacht.
The steering system is a rack and pinion system, employing sheathed stainless steel cables and rods. The cables run in greased “tubes” and have no wear points as found in systems that use wire and pulleys. There is a finely engineered and fitted emergency tiller system provided that would allow one to steer from atop the aft trunk cabin.
As with all genuine cruising boats, the ground tackle aboard BLACK DIAMOND is sturdy, well-engineered, and easy to deploy and retrieve. The primary anchor can be set and retrieved from the cockpit without effort with the windlass remote control. Double bow rollers handle the primary Bugel stainless steel anchor with 70 meters of chain. A secondary 44 Lb stainless steel Delta plow anchor is equipped with 24 meters of chain and 60 meters of rode. A Fortress FX-37 serves as a stern anchor with ample chain and rode.
DECK & HULL EQUIPMENT
- Lofrans1 500 watt horizontal capstan windlass
- Bugel stainless steel primary anchor with 70 meters of chain
- Delta stainless steel plow anchor with 24 meters of chain and 60 meters of rode
- Fortress FX-37 stern anchor fitted with ample chain & rode
- 10 hp retractable bow thruster
- Avon 340 Rover RIB tender with 20 hp Honda four stroke outboard
- Stainless steel Ocean Marine Systems electric powered davits
- Stepped transom provides easy boarding to tender
- 8 Man emergency life raft w/survival supplies
- Large lazarette storage locker
- Boarding/swim ladder converts to passarelle/gang plank for Med mooring
- Custom Shade Tree Cover for sun protection in tropical climes
- Custom Amel leather helm seat
- Cockpit table folds out to accommodate 6 for dining
- Retractable Stamoid bimini cover with drop curtain enclosure
- 12-Volt D.C. ships generator start system
- 12-Volt D.C. ships Engine start system.
- 24-Volt D.C. ships house supply system
- 220-Volt A.C. ships generator system
- 220-Volt A.C. ships shore power system
The 12-volt D.C. ships generator start systems draws from one isolated stand-alone group 27-12 volt - 110 amp hour AGM battery to provide starting current exclusively to the generator. This generator start system battery is charged by an 18 amp 12 volt alternator that is powered by the generator.
The 12-Volt D.C. ships engine start system draws from one isolated stand-alone, group 27-12 volt - 110 amp hour AGM battery to provide starting current to the main engine. This battery is charged by a 160 amp 12-volt engine driven alternator. This battery is totally isolated and cannot be co-mingled with the house supply batteries. It can, however, be jumped from the house supply batteries with the provided jumper cables, if it ever needs to be.
The 24-volt D.C. ships house supply battery banks consists of twelve (12) group 27-12 volt - 110 amp hour Lifeline AGM marine batteries. This bank of 12 batteries is linked into one large 24V battery. All of the Lifeline batteries were renewed in 2018. One can expect a useful service life of 7-10 years from these new batteries.
The house batteries are monitored by a digital monitoring unit, which shows voltage, amps out, and amps into the house batteries. It is very accurate and useful.
The ship’s 24-volt D.C. house supply system is controlled by a circuit breaker master panel.
The 220-volt A.C. 7 KW ship’s diesel generator is an ONAN unit with a fresh water-cooled three-cylinder diesel power plant. The generator has 2181 hours of total use. It is mounted in the engine room on hydro-feet and is very quiet in operation. It is not contained in a sound shield/cocoon thereby making it easy to access for inspection and maintenance.
The 220-volt A.C. ship’s diesel generator and the 220-volt A.C. ships shore power system are controlled by a circuit breaker master control panel. There are 220-volt outlets located conveniently throughout the accommodation. There is a ground fault interrupter in the primary 220 supply line.
A helpful note is in order here. Most North Americans tend to worry about 220-volt A.C. systems, as we are used to 110-volt A.C. systems. Briefly, 95% of all docks in the U.S.A. have 220-volt A.C. power. Most powerboats use 220-volt, often times employing a “splitter”. If only 110-volt A.C. is available dockside, there is an available doubler adaptor that converts two 110-volt dockside outlets into one 220-volt outlet. 90% of the world, other than the North American Continent, is 220-volt. As Amel’s are voyaging boats, they are set up to receive the most commonly available shore power.
The current owner added three new 150 watt solar panels and Victron solar controller for additional charging capabilitiy.
MISC. ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT
- Complete set of original Amel manuals
- Shade Tree full boat & rain cover
- Weighted bug screens for all hatches
- Spare Raymarine autopilot control unit
- Marine Medical first aid kit
- Propane tanks 20 Lb & 10 Lb
- (2) spare wash down pumps
- Dry-Pal dehumidifier
- Custom fitted sheets and mattress pads for all beds
- Miehle canister vacuum
- Life Vests
- Life Rings
- High powered exterior wifi equipment
- Lee boards for all bunks
- Jack lines
The Company offers the details of this vessel in good faith but cannot guarantee or warrant the accuracy of this information nor warrant the condition of the vessel. A buyer should instruct his agents, or his surveyors, to investigate such details as the buyer desires validated. This vessel is offered subject to prior sale, price change, or withdrawal without notice.